Water-sharing-consuming system is pivot of life in Central Asia (CA). Total irrigated lands in CA 9,3 mln hectares. Water-reservoirs (13 big ones) have square 378,2 quadric km, total volume 23,4 cubic km. Total CA water consuming for agriculture about 74 mlm cubic km, but for municipal and industrial very few – 8,0 mln.
There are three problems threaten for sustainability of CA: water high non useful looses 35% -55% of volume, high population grow, soil depletion by bad water management and long extensive monoculture. Water loses occur due: 1) non thrifty cannel construction and non thrifty sharing, 2) water volume depletion (shortage of ice-deposit water 17% last 43 years) and rise of evaporation both coursed by Global Warming). Joint mentioned influences resulted: desertification and soil salinisation, shortage of irrigated land per capita (in Kyrgyzstan in 1975 – 0,27, but in 2006 – 0,15; in Tadjikistan in 1975 – 0,17, but in 2006 – 0,10), and shortage of harvest pre capita.
There are three main scenarios for 15-25 years :
1) good (in case of high effective policy implementing) and irrigation-water volume do thrifty till 9300-9800 cubic m/hectare, and demographic grow would be moderated till 0,96-1,0% per year coincidentally;
2) middle with 9900-1100 cubic meters/hectare, 1,2-1,5% considerably;
3) worst, in case of no change would be done (12000 cubic meters/hectare, 1,5-1,9%). Last scenario would lead to steadfast shortage of harvest (especially in South and East Uzbekistan, and North Tadjikistan – where live 60% of CA population), wide spread of poverty and malnutrition, and riots of course.
Our independent water-NGOs network tries: on one hand – to implement thrifty tools of water sharing; on other hand – to capacity building of local groups (Water Users Associations).
Five thrifty water sharing tools has been implemented:
1) Original “self-strengthening water system for slopes in the hill-mountain rural areas”;
2) Reconstructing/new building of micro channel network (non-permeability bed, plastic canal cover);
3) Urgent information system for prevention water loose;
4) Computer-accounted water-sharing system for farmers. The automatic water flow monitoring based on hard ware and soft ware, cover total circle. The data (deposits, volume flowing, etc) are incorporated into date base of “chain members” gradually follow the next: sharing (focal point officers) – mediators – terminal consumers (WUA). The original program in Delphi, and based on contemporary Balance model. The system had been tested for last three years, and it has been convinced the system prevent lost over 50% of water volume. New equipment (52 counters) are monitoring 168.000 hectares. And last 5) tool is “small farm artificial-rein and thermal management system” (ARMS). It consist of ordinary parts but in original complex and using: water expenses for rue harvest fall five times compare with ordinary tool. In case of use two mentioned thrifty technologies
5) coincidently – we can economize water volume several times.
It has been organised lobby of new legislation on water- unions, and awareness of new farmers.
It has been lobbied several Resolutions of Kyrgyzstani, Uzbekistani, Tadjikistani Cabinet Ministries (and Laws) about Water-Users Associations in 2003-2006. It has been organized awareness campaign on self-organizations skills, new-market rule. The campaign has been done in 74 villages (three mentioned countries), by series of seminars and publishing of an adapted booklets in three local languages. Special pictures CD has been created in local languages on water thrifty tools in GW background.
It has been created 518 Water-user associations (WUA), and 367 Drinking water users (DWU) in Kyrgyzstan only till now (from 14 and 0 in 2004). The process of water-users creation has been beginning in Uzbekistan (after Resolution of Cabinet Ministries N38), and just 113 WUA working in Fergana-Syrdarya area, 85 in Tashkent area (total WUA in Uzbekistan 286).
We are providing several independent trans-boarder projects between Kyrgyz and Uzbek communities: the communities Charvak and Khusher villages in warm deserted region, where common water-pump was installed (without support of officials); the communities of both coasts Isfayram-Say river both beach’s agreed on common water use.
a) for Central Asia region: make countries common water irrigating system management, and plan for 30 years;
b) for local level: capacity building of communities, Water Users Associations in three fields: law supporting, skills and equipment;
c) for thrifty technology/tools: new tools must be implementing nearest year for avoid harvest shortage by water depletion.